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National Forest Week 2000
Careers/Mountain Pine Beetle

Resources Included in Kit
• Primary lesson plan (K-4) & Intermediate lesson plan (Gr.5-7)
• Visual Resources

Primary & Intermediate Lesson (see Primary Lesson Plan for overheads)

-bark samples with beetle galleries
-pitch pockets
-blue stain
-lodgepole pine and cone samples
-picture sheet of industry careers

Primary Lessons

-Increment borer (or picture of one)
-magnifying glass
-picture of chain saw
-piece of wood

Intermediate Lesson

-video: The Right Choice


• Introduce yourself and give a brief description of what your job is. Explain why you are visiting the class.
• Show the bug vial and ask the following.....accept all answers but do not give the correct answer at this time. Explain that you will return to the vial of bugs later on:
- What do you think these are?
- What do you think they do?
- How many (bugs) do you think are in this vial? ....Guesstimate.

Intermediate Lesson
- What do you think the term “Forest Industry” means? After you have heard a few responses, explain the term refers to all jobs relating to the forest & production of wood products
- Overhead of “Then & Now”: What changes do you see?
- What are some of the jobs that you know of in today’s forest industry?... Accept 5 or 6 answers and then tell them you will be showing them a video about careers in the forest industry.
- Ask them to watch for 2 things:
a) What careers are mentioned that you didn’t know were part of the industry?
b) How does the vial of bugs relate to the video?

- Ask the students to name “one” career that they hadn’t know about before the video. Insist on only one answer per person.
- How did the bug vial relate to the video? answer: The entomologist. Be sure they know the word and what it means......write it on the board.

- overhead of beetle: most beetles attack old or sick trees (eg. fire or wind damaged). The first female that attacks a tree gives off a pheromone or scent that attracts the males and mating occurs. The males in turn emit a pheromone that attracts more females which can lead to a mass attack if the conditions are right.....hot dry summers, mild winters and a large food source (weak, mature trees). When there is a mass attack, the natural predators like woodpeckers cannot reproduce quickly enough to maintain the beetle population at a manageable level.
- overhead of lifecycle: discuss the lifecycle of the beetle...summer- flying adults/female lays eggs which will hatch about 2 weeks later; fall- parent adults, eggs & larvae, winter- mainly larvae stage, spring- pupae/adult
- overhead of tree layers: explain the purpose of each layer and that the female adult beetle burrows in under the bark
- gallery sample: female beetle chews out galleries or tunnels, usually about 30 cm long, where she then lays her eggs
- gallery sample & overhead of tree layers: When the eggs hatch, the larvae chew the inner bark area cutting off the tree’s supply of water and nutrients (food)
- lifecycle overhead: The larvae then pupate in their own gallery and emerge as adult beetles who burrow back out of the bark and move on to new trees where the process is repeated

- beetle overhead: this is a Mt. Pine Beetle, an adult beetle is 3.7-7.5 mm long
-vial of bugs: tell them approx. how many beetles are in the vial (45)
- Pine Beetles: worst of the beetle pests in that they do two things differently:
a) they will infest healthy mature trees, especially during an epidemic
b) blue stain fungus sample: they introduce a fungus, a blue stain infection, via a microorganism they carry-trees can withstand a light attack by “exuding” pitch (pine sap).
- pitch pockets sample and overhead: -trees can withstand a light attack by “exuding” pitch (pine sap). Whitish pitch indicates the tree has repelled the attack, reddish brown pitch means the attack was successful and the tree will die.
- gallery and blue stain samples and overhead: the combination of the gallery construction and the fungus associated with a mass attack overcomes the tree’s defence system and eventually kills the tree

• What are some of the symptoms?
-2 overheads: healthy & infected trees, Tweedsmuir Park:
1)foliage turns red 2) pitch tubes at point of entry 3) boring dust at tree base
*To positively identify the mountain pine beetle you must look under the bark.

• Why is there such a major problem today when the beetle has always been here?
- Fire prevention....pine is now considered a valuable species to the industry and efforts made to eliminate or prevent fires have been very successful. The result is that we now have an abundance of mature (even aged) pine whereas in the past, fire was a part of the lodgepole pine’s life....fires thinned and renewed the stands leaving a forest of uneven aged trees. Mt. Pine Beetles prefer mature trees so an uneven aged stand was less likely to have a mass attack
- lodgepole branch and cone sample: lodgepole pine depend on the heat after a fire to open its seed cones
• What preventative strategies are used to reduce the buildup of beetle population?
- reducing tree density
- establishing a mix of species, ages and sizes within an area
- harvesting trees as soon as they become mature
• Sudden cold snaps (-25o) in early fall or late spring, or sustained frigid winter temperatures (less than -40o) can also reduce beetle population.

• What are some of the Management strategies that exist today? (Bark Beetle pamphlet)
- Pheromone baiting - traps
- sanitation harvesting/clear cutting - harvest trees and use for lumber
- pesticide - doesn’t work well. Why?.....beetles are under the bark
- snip and skid, mosaic burns, fall and burn

• Management strategies are designed and applied in a way that protects the “ecological integrity” of the area. This is done by preserving:
- adequate buffer zones around lakes, streams and wetlands
- old growth management areas
- wildlife trees
- wildlife corridors

-Tell me something you learned today?
-Leave for class: 1 poster, 1 brochure, 1 CFA booklet, 1 activity sheet, & info on poster contest (MoF contest and the Vernon school district poster contest)

- mountain pine beetles attack: lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine & white pine from mid July to mid August. They have a one year cycle.
- in 1999 a total area of 125,289 hectares in BC was infested by beetles
-under epidemic conditions, the beetles that emerge from one infested tree can move on to kill 2 or more trees of similar size next year
- it is impossible to predict the spread rate or direction of an infestation but attacked trees are usually near previously killed trees
- beetle-infested logs have some economic value if cut and processed within a couple of years of being attacked but the value is less than it would have been prior to the attack
- tight controls are maintained on transportation of infested logs
- infestation increases the danger of fire
- outbreaks generally last 8-10 years
- an area is considered infested it 10 or more trees per hectare are being attacked
- in the past 80 years, it is estimated that more than 500,000,000 trees have been killed by bark beetle attacks
- when dealing with an epidemic, younger trees may be attacked